The page is continued from the First Contact w/ Europeans section.
Below constitutes a rough draft version of this particular history section. The heavily-upgraded textbook version will be available soon.
Pt. 1: The Fascist Ancient Criminal Law System, & The Desperate Attempt At Creating A New Civil Government
The American Revolution; A Desperate Attempt at Escape from Slavery
All sections of The Constitution of The United States which mention “Indians” or “Treaties”, as well as other key sections- are presented & then analyzed, translated below, & then brought into historical context below. Sections directly related to the analysis will be found highlighted in red. Its recommended that if anything appears too complex at first, to simply skip that section & continue reading, as things should become easier to grasp as you move forward. Though The Constitution has been violated on many occasions historically, it was created with great knowledge of history, & with wisdom in creating a political tool to aid our current generation in what the Founding Fathers foresaw would likely befall us, & in many ways has. Despite popular belief, the document was not built to encourage or condone slavery; rather, it was designed to free people from slavery amongst a world where slavery has been rampant throughout many civilizations for far too long...
The Removed Section of The Declaration of Independence:
“He (King George III) has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical (pirate) warfare, the opprobrium (disgrace, especially of large numbers of persons) of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where Men should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce. And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he has obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed again the Liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.“
When Thomas Jefferson included a passage attacking slavery in his draft of the Declaration of Independence it initiated the most intense debate among the delegates gathered at Philadelphia in the spring and early summer of 1776. Jefferson’s passage on slavery was the most important section removed from the final document- replaced with a more ambiguous passage about King George‘s incitement of “domestic insurrections among us.” Decades later Jefferson blamed the removal of the passage on delegates from South Carolina and Georgia and Northern delegates who represented merchants who were at the time actively involved in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.
But, the escaping colonists were up against much more than stopping the slave trade, & those who were in-the-know needed to pull together as quickly as possible to create a political platform which could withstand the political body they were up against- which is explained in greater detail below. To know why The Constitution was written in the way it was, one must also learn ‘what they were up against”, which goes far beyond “Great Britain, The Stamp Act, or ‘No Taxation Without Representation“. What is written below is designed to equip people with knowledge so “our path forward” may be done with wisdom & insight- that we might not make the same mistakes...
The Constitution of the United States mentions three areas of jurisdiction in which the courts & public officials may operate: Common Law, Equity Law, & Admiralty (or maritime) Law. All 3 are mentioned within:
Article III, Section 2, “The Case or Controversy Clause”
“The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law & Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, & Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers & Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty & maritime Jurisdiction;— to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;— between a State & Citizens of another State,— between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, & between a State, or the Citizens thereof, & foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.”
Within the first line, “The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law & Equity”, two “areas of jurisdiction” are mentioned: “Law” & “Equity”. “Law” refers to “Common Law”, or “the law of the land” (explained below), whereas “Equity Law” is the mode of operation which governs contracts- including contract breaches or rescissions of contracts, when necessary. The other jurisdiction described in “The Case or Controversy Clause” reads as follows: “to all Cases of admiralty & maritime Jurisdiction…“- which brings us to the third “area of jurisdiction”:
Maritime is an area of jurisdiction which governs commerce (trade between nations); it is also called “The Law of The Sea”. “Admiralty” is also mentioned in the Case or Controversy Clause; admiralty follows the same rules & precepts as Maritime, except that it is applied to commercial trade (trade of surplus between states, tribes, nations, or other types of political bodies) when done on land rather than over bodies of water (at which time, it is called “maritime” rather than “admiralty”). Both Admiralty and Maritime are systems based on commercial trade; this system- often at odds with “the law of the land” (called “Common Law”), can be very confusing and even dangerous to persons who are unaware as to the differences between them. It is likely today that through denial of knowledge to some (many) people through our schooling systems, that our executive branch has for far too long not been kept in check; it will be by “learning the rules that they are playing by, & then using those same rules in order to hold them accountable to what the law actually is“ that will get The People back in power over a system that has been subverted by racist, classist, religiously-segregating criminal rings who have made things appear irreparably corrupt.
Need-to-Know: What Is “Pro Se Civil Litigation”?
“Pro Se Civil Litigation” is a way of representing one’s own case in court without an attorney or lawyer. Whereas many people cannot afford a lawyer or attorney, “representing one’s self” can be an effective way to represent one’s case. Every local Federal District Courthouse website has “Pro Se Civil Litigation Handbook” (under a similar name), such as this one from North Dakota’s Northern District:
Definition of PRO SE, Black’s Law Dictionary:
“For himself; in his own behalf; in person.”
LITIGATION, Black’s Law Dictionary:
Note: Many persons know their rights, but still today (11-23-2016) too many persons do not know how to enforce the protection of their rights through the Federal Judiciary. To begin to peel back the layers, here is an article from the U.S. Embassy website regarding the
FAQ: Why would government officials hold themselves accountable? That doesn’t make sense? If police officers & sheriffs are violating us- they’re not going to arrest themselves!
The County of Morton was originally created in 1873 (8 years after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865) and later organized in 1878. The county was created by the 1872-1873 territorial legislature and named for Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton (1823-1877), governor of Indiana during the American Civil War and later a United States Senator.
FAQ: How does “being a CORPORATION make the County of Morton (or certain other Counties) operate differently than other types of political bodies?
According to 1919 Supreme Court ruling Dodge v. Ford (270 Fed. Appx. 200), “The purpose of a corporation is to make a profit for the shareholders, but a court will not interfere with decisions that come under the business judgment of directors.“
According to Black’s Law Dictionary, County of Morton (& all corporations) is considered an ARTIFICIAL PERSON:
“A nonhuman entity that is created by law and is legally different owning its own rights and duties. AKA jusistic person and legal person. Refer to body corporate.“
BODY CORPORATE is defined as:
CORPORATION is defined as:
“An artificial person or legal entity created by or under the authority of the laws of a state or nation, composed, in some rare instances, of a single person and his successors, being the incumbents of a particular oltice, but ordinarily consisting of an association of numerous individuals, who subsist as a body politic under a special denomination, which is regarded In law as having a personality and existence distinct from that of its several members, and which is, by the same authority, vested with the capacity of continuous succession, irrespective of changes in its membership, either in perpetuity or for a limited term of years, and of acting as a unit or single individual in matters relating to the common purpose of the association, within the scope of the powers and authorities conferred upon such bodies by law. See Case of Sutton’s Hospital, 10 Coke. 32; Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheat. 518, 636, 657. 4 L. Ed. 629; U. S. v. Trinidad Coal Co., 137 U. S. 160, 11 Sup. Ct. 57. 34 L. Ed. 640; Andrews Bros. Co. v. Youngstown Coke Co., 86 Fed. 585, 30 C. C. A. 293; Porter v. Railroad Co., 76 111. 573; State v. Payne, 129 Mo. 468, 31 S. W. 797. 33 L. R. A. 576; Farmers’ L. & T. Co. v. New York, 7 Hill (N. Y.) 2S3; State BL.LAW DICT.(2D ED.)“
WHEREAS a human being is considered a NATURAL PERSON:
“A human being, naturally born, versus a legally generated juridical person.“
“Entity, as a firm, that is not a single natural person, as a human being, authorized by law with duties and rights, recognized as a legal authority having a distinct identity, a legal personality. Also known as artificial person, juridical entity, juristic person, or legal person. Also refer to body corporate.“
Admiralty Law, A History & Introduction:
Admiralty/Maritime law utilizes a “separate language” made from common everyday words which don’t always translate into the words you’re intending to state: this video provides an excellent introduction of the “separate language of maritime law”- often dubbed “legalese” for short:
“Admiralty law or maritime law is the distinct body of law (both substantive and procedural) governing navigation & shipping. Topics associated with this field in legal reference works may include: shipping; navigation; waters; commerce; seamen; towage; wharves, piers, & docks; insurance; maritime liens; canals; & recreation. Piracy (ship hijacking) is also an aspect of admiralty.
The courts & Congress seek to create a uniform body of admiralty law both nationally & internationally in order to facilitate commerce. The federal courts derive their exclusive jurisdiction over this field from the Judiciary Act of 1789 & from Article III, § 2 of the U.S. Constitution. Congress regulates admiralty partially through the Commerce Clause (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3). American admiralty law formerly applied only to American tidal waters. It now extends to any waters navigable within the United States for interstate or foreign commerce. In such waters admiralty jurisdiction includes maritime matters not involving interstate commerce, including recreational boating.“
Admiralty law in the United States developed from the British admiralty courts present in most of the American colonies. These courts functioned separately from courts of law & equity. With the Judiciary Act, though, Congress placed admiralty under the jurisdiction of the federal district courts. Although admiralty shares much in common with the civil law, it is separate from it.” (About The U.S. Marshals)
More About “Admiralty Law” & “Maritime Law”, systems of law which govern “Commerce”
Admiralty law or maritime law is a distinct body of law that governs maritime questions & offenses. It is a body of domestic law governing maritime activities, & also a private international law governing the relationships between private entities that operate vessels on the oceans. It deals with matters including marine commerce, marine navigation, marine salvaging, shipping, sailors, & the transportation of passengers and goods by sea. Admiralty law is distinguished from the Law of the Sea, which is a body of public international law dealing with navigational rights, mineral rights, jurisdiction over coastal waters, & international law governing relationships between nations. Admiralty law covers commercial activities, although land based or occurring wholly on land, that are maritime in character, such as “trade between States” or “trade between States & Tribes”.
Seaborne transport was one of the earliest channels of commerce, & rules for resolving disputes involving maritime trade were developed early in recorded history. The earliest historical record of marine law is that of the Rhodian (Grecian island) law system (Nomos Rhodion Nautikos), compiled by the Rhodians around 900 B.C. Though no primary written specimen has survived, the Rhodian law is alluded to in later legal texts, such as Roman Law, & then later within Byzantine legal codes which developed from Roman Law, but which had a greater Christian influence throughout its advance. Slavery in the Byzantine Empire was widespread & common throughout its history. A main source of slave were prisoners of war, of which there was a great profit to be made. A medieval Arab historian estimates that 200,000 women & children were taken as slaves after the Byzantine reconquest of Crete from the Muslims. Parents living in the Byzantine empire were forced to sell their children to pay their debts, which Byzantine laws unsuccessfully tried to prevent. The upcoming information throughout this page coupled with knowledge of the framework within The Constitution of The United States can be used to free people from otherwise subversive, often oppressive forms of commercial language which are used internationally to subvert “the laws of all lands/nations” under “the laws of the sea”: the knowledge throughout this page explains how The Constitution is designed as a political tool designed by The Founding Fathers who knew the future generations would be in danger the horrors which befell Europe & many other nations unless we were to have access to a Federal Judiciary based on moral principle rather than on mere financial principal, so long as we know and learn how to use the court systems in such a way that retains our original design by and for the people.
American Common Law:
It could be said that Common Law was originally developed to create justice- to hold criminals accountable for their actions- & that Maritime was first created to ensure equity when trading good from one political body (tribe, state, etc.) to another, but that at some point in history Admiralty came to no longer adhere to the courts, because the courts did not have the power to enforce their rulings- but that is why there is such thing as banks– because when a funded & weaponed organization is no longer upholding law, but instead begins violating it, it is then that “the law of the land” may be called upon through the courts for the sake reconciliation & accountability to actions.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
A Supreme Court Case in 1803 was a landmark case for its use of judicial review, or the right of federal courts to determine the constitutionality of legislation. This decision helped establish the judicial branch as separate and equal to the legislative and executive branches.
U.S. Common Law is designed as an evolved version of old European Common Law, however from its very beginning the U.S.- like many nations- was founded on establishing order & justice to counteract the injustices being imposed under the rules of Admiralty, & so within the founding document there were created certain legal keys with which to keep the injustice at bay, but such keys require a Civil Action, which is explained further down this page.
American Common Law:
American Common Law is based on what most people would call common sense- “Well of course that’s how things should be- that just makes sense!” In fact- one of the most famous writings in American history is called Common Sense by Thomas Paine– whose writings exemplify exactly why Common Law must remain intact; it is the “Checks & Balances” of the 3 jurisdictions, designed to prevent commercial codes (see Admiralty Law below) from circumventing The Law of The Land (The Constitution of the United States including the Bill of Rights). Common Law is designed to ensure that money is used “to regulate commerce” instead of being used “to enslave people beneath the often otherwise subversive laws of economics”. Here’s an excerpt from Paine‘s famous pamphlet which circulated throughout the Colonies from 1775-1776, called Common Sense:
“Mankind being originally equals in the order of creation, the equality could only be destroyed by some subsequent circumstance; the distinctions of rich- and poor. Oppression is often the consequence… of riches.
Male & female are the distinctions of nature, good & bad the distinctions of heaven; but how a race of men came into the world so exalted above the rest, & distinguished like some new species- is worth investigating, & whether they are the means of happiness or of the misery to mankind… the evils of hereditary succession…
Men who look upon themselves born to reign, & others to obey, soon grow insolent (showing rude & arrogant lack of respect)… their minds are early poisoned by importance… when they succeed to the government they are frequently the most ignorant & unfit of any throughout the dominions.“
Common Law includes “the common sciences to which we are all bound” (ie gravity, physics, ecology, ethnobiology, resource management, etc.). It is “the law of the land”, & in The United States of America, The Constitution of The United States is decidedly The Law of The Land. Therefore, Common law is also “the protection of human Rights as described in The Bill of Rights“.
Under Common law, there must be “A Verified Complaint from a Damaged Party”:
As for “Common Law Courts” (which were adopted into the design of America from England through The Constitution), anytime someone is charged under the Common Law, there must be a “damaged party”. You are free under Common Law to do anything you please, as long as you do not infringe on the life, liberty, or property of someone else. You have a right to make a fool of yourself provided you do not infringe on the life, liberty, or property of someone else. For instance, when you cross over the state lines in most states, you will see a sign which says, ” BUCKLE YOUR SEAT BELTS – IT’S THE LAW. ” This cannot be Common Law, because who would you injure if you did not buckle up? Nobody. Being made to buckle up is a form of compelled performance- but Common Law cannot compel performance.
Any violation of Common Law is a CRIMINAL ACT , & is punishable. The stipulation, however, is that under Common Law the Officers must be able to present “a verified complaint from a damaged party”; if they are unable to present such complaint, then they went outside their jurisdiction, & the accused must not only be found innocent, but they also then have the Right to collect Restitution for damages & for “Personal Injury” via performing a “Civil Action”.
Definition of PERSONAL INJURY on Black’s Law Dictionary:
Equity Law is law which compels performance. It compels you to perform to the exact letter of any contract that you are under. So, if you have compelled performance, there must be a contract somewhere, & you are being compelled to perform under the obligation of the contract. Now this can only be a civil action – not criminal. In Equity Jurisdiction, you cannot be tried criminally, but you can be compelled to perform to the letter of a contract. If you then refuse to perform as directed by the court, you can be charged with contempt of court, which is a criminal action.
A Bit More About Common Law:
CONTRACTS MUST BE VOLUNTARY
Under the Common Law, every contract must be entered into knowingly, voluntarily, & intentionally by both parties or it is void & unenforceable. These are characteristic -it must be based on substance. For example, contracts used to read, “For one dollar & other valuable considerations, I will paint your house, etc.”
… & now, where Equity Law meets International (Commercial) Law:
Article I, Section 8, Clause 2, “The Commerce Clause”
“The Congress shall have Power To lay & collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts & Excises, to pay the Debts & provide for the common Defense & general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts & Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States…
… (Congress shall have Power) to regulate commerce with foreign nations, & among the several states, & with the Indian tribes.”
What is Commerce?
“Commerce” denotes “trade between political bodies“, as in “trade between nations”, “trade between states”, “trade between tribes”, “trade between states & tribes”, &/or other defined political bodies. In order to “trade between political bodies”, such body must produce a service or a net surplus., as such service &/or net surplus may be traded with other political bodies. Net surplus is generally “the portion of the Gross Domestic Product– (“GDP”) that is not used for the purpose as operating expenses needed for the political body to function. “Commerce” does not denote “trade between individuals”, as witnessed within the latter portion of the definition of “commerce” within Black’s Law Dictionary:
Definition of “COMMERCE”, Black’s Law Dictionary:
“Intercourse by way of trade and traffic between different peoples or states & the citizens or inhabitants thereof, including not only the purchase, sale, & exchange of commodities, but also the instrumentalities & agencies by which it is promoted and the means & appliances by which it is carried on, & the transportation of persons as well as of goods, both by land & by sea.
Commerce is a term of the largest import. It comprehends intercourse for the purposes of trade in any & all its forms, including the transportation, purchase, sale, & exchange of commodities between the citizens of our country & the citizens or subjects of other countries, & between the citizens of different states. The power to regulate it embraces all the instruments by which such commerce may be conducted. Commerce is not limited to an exchange of commodities only, but includes, as well, intercourse with foreign nations and between the states; & includes the transportation of passengers.
The words “commerce” & “trade” are synonymous, but not identical. They are often used interchangeably; but, strictly speaking, commerce relates to intercourse or dealings with foreign nations, states, or political communities, while trade denotes business intercourse or mutual traffic within the limits of a state or nation, or the buying, selling, & exchanging of articles between members of the same community.”
Article I, Section 10, Clause 1, “The Contract Clause”
“No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque & Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.”
“CONFEDERATION”, Black’s Law Dictionary:
“A league or compact for mutual support, particularly of princes, nations, or states. Such was the colonial government during the Revolution”1
“MARQUE & REPRISAL, LETTERS OF”, Black’s Law Dictionary:
“These words, “marque” and “reprisal,” are frequently used as synonymous, but, taken In their strict etymological sense, the latter signifies a “taking in return ;” the former, the passing the frontiers (marches) in order to such takiug. Letters of marque and reprisal are grantable, by the law of nations, whenever the subjects of one state are oppressed and injured by those of another, and justice is denied by that state to which the oppressor belongs; and the party to whom these letters are granted may then seize the bodies or the goods of the subjects of the state to which the offender belongs, until satisfaction be made, wherever they happen to be found. Reprisals are to be granted only in case of a clear and open denial of justice. At the present day, in consequence partly of treaties and partly of the practice of nations, the making of reprisals is confined to the seizure of commercial property on the high seas by public cruisers, or by private cruisers specially authorized thereto. Brown.”2
“BILL OF ATTAINDER”, Black’s Law Dictionary:
“A legislative act, directed against a designated person, pronouncing him guilty of an alleged crime, (usually treason) without trial or conviction according to the recognized rules of procedure, & passing sentence of death & attainder upon him. “Bills of attainder,” as they are technically called, are such special acts of the legislatureas inflict capital punishments upon persons supposed to be guilty of high offenses, such as treason & felony, without any conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. If an act inflicts a milder degree of punishment than death, it is called a “bill of pains & penalties,” but both are included in the prohibition in the Federal constitution. Story, Const.”3
Article II, Section 2.
“The President shall be commander in chief of the Army & Navy of the United States, & of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, & he shall have power to grant reprieves & pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
He shall have power, by & with the advice & consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; & he shall nominate, & by & with the advice & consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers & consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, & all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, & which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.”
“TREATY”, Black’s Law Dictionary:
In international law. An agreement between two or more independent states. Brande. An agreement, league, or contract between two or more nations or sovereigns, formally signed by commissioners properly authorized, & solemnly ratified by the several sovereigns or the supreme power of each state. Webster; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 5 Pet. 00, 8 L. Ed. 25; Edye v. Robertson, 112 U. S. 5S0, 5 Sup. Ct. 247, 28 L. Ed. 798; Holmes v. Jennison. 14 Pet. 571, 10 L. Ed. 579; U. S. v. Rauscher, 119 U. S. 407, 7 Sup. Ct. 234, 30 L. Ed. 425; Ex parte Ortiz (C. C.) 100 Fed. 902. In private law, “treaty” signifies the discussion of terms which immediately precedes the conclusion of a contract or other transaction. A warranty on the sale of goods, to be valid, must be made during the “treaty” preceding the sale. Chit. Cont. 419; Sweet.1
1Black’s Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition Online: http://thelawdictionary.org/treaty/
Looking Back; The Pickering Treaty
Iroquois Nation leaders & tribal members gathered in Washington, DC on 2-22-2016 to renew a 222-year-old treaty between the U.S. Government & the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. Known as the Haudenosaunee, the Confederacy nations include the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, & Tuscarora.
Representatives of the Iroquois Nation have been coming to Washington, DC annually for the past 222 years in honor of the Treaty of Canandaigua, which was signed on November 11th, 1794 by honored members of the Iroquois Nations, President George Washington, Colonel Timothy Pickering, & others. The treaty is sometimes referred to as the ‘Pickering Treaty.”
“With the treaty cloth that was presented, this is really polishing the chain,” said Chief Oren Lyons, Onondaga Faithkeeper. “It is renewing the covenant that was made between leaders & the first president of the United States of America. This is obviously a lesson to the American public, in that they were making treaty belts at the time. People do not realize how important the protocol of the Haudenosaunee was. I think at these times, we need a voice of peace.”
Rebecca Bowen, Director of the Seneca Nation archives, stated, “This original treaty from 1794 is a promise that our lands are protected. A treaty is a supreme law of the land, the presentation of the annuity cloth is a symbol of renewing that treaty.”1
1Iroquois Nation Reps, Clan Mothers, Gather for 222nd Annual Canandaigua Treaty Ceremony”, by Vincent Schilling, Indian Country Today Media Network: http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2016/02/25/iroquois-nation-reps-clan-mothers-gather-222nd-annual-canandaigua-treaty-ceremony-163541
This page is in-the-making; please check back soon.
: Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson: Being His Autobiography, Correspondence, Reports, Messages, Addresses, and other Writings, Official and Private (Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Maury, 1853-1854): http://www.blackpast.org/primary/declaration-independence-and-debate-over-slavery#sthash.uUOnSsRg.dpuf
: PRO SE, Black’s Law Dictionary: http://thelawdictionary.org/pro-se/
: LITIGATION, Black’s Law Dictionary: http://thelawdictionary.org/litigation/
: History of Morton County, North Dakota: Dakota Territory, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Individual County Chronologies”. Dakota Territory Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
: U.S. Marshal’s Service on “Admiralty”, District of Guam: https://www.usmarshals.gov/district/guam/admiralty/
: Cornell Law University, Legal Information Institute, “Admiralty; An Overview”: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/admiralty
: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894
: D. Phillips, William (1985). Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade. Manchester University Press. p. 37.ISBN 9780719018251
: Trade and Industry, F.H. Marshall, Illustrated Encyclopedia of World History, Vol. 4, ed. JA Hammerton, (Mittal Publications), p. 2629
: “COMMERCE”, Black’s Law Dictionary: http://thelawdictionary.org/commerce/
: “BILL OF ATTAINDER”, Black’s Law dhttp://thelawdictionary.org/bill-of-attainder/