Construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline Project (“DAPL”) was Approved Illegally

Whereas on July 13, 2017 U.S. District Judge James Boasberg in Washington concluded among a 91-page decision that “federal permits issued for the pipeline violated the law [1] [2]

U.S. District Judge Hon. James E. Boasberg:

Whereas thousands of U.S. Citizens came from around the country to the aid of local Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Members 

Casus foederis is the event upon the occurrence of which it becomes the duty of one of the allies to render the promised assistance to the other.  Thus, in the case of a defensive alliance, the casus foederis occurs when war is declared or commenced against one of the allies. Treaties of alliance very often define precisely the event which shall be regarded as the casus foederis.“ [3]

Page in Making


[1]: Reuters, “Federal judge orders more environmental analysis of Dakota pipeline” by Valerie

[2]: Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, “In Victory for Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, Court Finds That Approval of Dakota Access Pipeline Violated the Law”:

[3]: Oppenheim, L., International Law: A Treatise, 8th Ed., Vol. 1, edited by H. Lauterpacht (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1955), page 963-964:

Creating Clarity from Chaos